Post a reply to each of the post attached of at least 400 words . For each thread, students must support their assertions with scholarly citations in APA format. Each reply must incorporate scholarly citations in APA format. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years.
Discussion Board: Managing Dynamic Organizational Processes
Chapter 10: Do you think it is possible for an outsider to accurately discern about the underlying cultural values of an organization by analyzing symbols, ceremonies, dress, or other observable aspects of culture in comparison to an insider with several years of work experience? Select a percentage (e.g., 10%, 70%, etc.) and explain your reasoning.
Daft (2021) notes that culture is, “the set of values, norms, guiding beliefs, and understandings that is shared by members of an organization and taught to new members as the correct way to think, feel, and behave” (p. 445). Culture allows employees to integrate into a common environment and aids in adjusting to the external environment (Daft, 2021). An outside observer would be able to analyze symbols, ceremonies, dress, and other aspects of an organization and could accurately discern about 30% of an organization's cultural values. Symbols, ceremonies, dress, and other visually identifiable aspects of culture do not make up a large amount of organizational culture. The internal integration of coworkers guides employees' working relationships, interactions, communication, behaviors, and power structure (Daft, 2021). These are not easily identifiable from an outsider.
An insider with several years of experience could more accurately gauge an organization’s cultural beliefs. About 90% of an organization’s culture could be projected by an employee after working at the same company for several years. This employee would be able to see day-to-day relationships, how goals are met with outsiders, professional development, and even what nonconforming behaviors are accepted (Daft, 2021). This knowledge is developed with hands-on experience that an outsider may not see from the outside over a short period. Sahoo (2022) notes that organizational culture must be aligned with company policies, procedures, and goals for them to have any chance of succeeding as they have a large impact on how an organization operates.
Chapter 11: A noted organization theorist once said, "Pressure for change originates in the environment. Pressure for stability originates within the organization." Do you agree?
I agree with the above statement. Daft (2021) notes that:
“Technological advances, changing markets, increasing government regulation, e-business and mobile commerce, shifting social attitudes, global economic turbulence, social media and the digital information revolution, and the growing power of Arab countries and the BRIC nations (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) have brought about an uncertain globalized economy that affects every business, from the largest to the smallest, creating more threats as well as more opportunities” (p. 480).
This passage demonstrates the sheer number of environmental forces that can pressure organizational change. Janka et al. (2019) note that stability is often sought after internally as the more a company stays the course, the more change employees feel that their job is not on the line. While many depict stability as a bad thing, Janka et al. (2019) note that innovation is still possible in highly stable organizations through cultural controls.
Environmental forces can pressure companies to change and innovate to remain relevant in the marketplace or may even force a company to change its domain or environment to survive (Daft, 2021). Azadegan et al. (2021) provide several examples of companies that were forced to change their business models throughout the pandemic due to supply chain disruptions and lockdowns. While stability in these crises is sought internally, companies can sometimes only achieve stability through change.
Chapter 12: If managers frequently use experience and intuition to make complex, non-programmed decisions, how do they apply evidence-based management (which seems to suggest that managers should rely on facts and data)?
Evidence-based management is one of the ways managers can overcome cognitive biases (Daft, 2021). Daft (2021) states that evidence-based management, “means a commitment to make more informed and objective decisions based on the best available facts and evidence” (p. 543). This enables managers to look at data and make decisions objectively. Combining this management style with intangibles and soft skills is what makes good managers great ones. Daft (2021) notes that other ways to overcome biases include encouraging dissent and diversity along the decision-making process. Having employees with a questioning attitude can provide managers with outside thoughts before making final decisions.
Chapter 13: In a rapidly changing organization, are decisions more likely to be made using the rational or political model of organization?
The rational model of an organization utilizes readily identifiable goals, steps, and decisions (Daft, 2021). Choices are made according to which one has the highest chance of success and is, "characterized by centralized power and control, extensive information systems, and an efficiency orientation” (p. 583). The political model is the opposite of the rational model and is comprised of conflict, disagreement, ambiguous information, and group think decision-making (Daft, 2021). While many companies operate both models, an organization that is rapidly changing must utilize the political model. It is more flexible to the many unexpected situations that arise in a dynamic organization that deals with a high amount of conflict. The rational model should not be used in a dynamic organization as the set steps and procedures will not be able to be followed to make decisions if they are not established for the varying situations that occur.
A caveat to choosing the political process is that additional tactics for enhancing collaboration may be needed due to the higher incidence of conflict. Daft (2021) demonstrates these tactics include creating integration devices, using confrontation and negotiation, scheduling intergroup consultation, establishing member rotations, and creating shared missions and subordinate goals.
What biblical implications should be included/addressed?
Matthew 18: 15-16 (New International Version Bible, 1978/2011) demonstrates the need for people to resolve their difference in private, and if unable to do so find a mediator that can help. Telling one the sins committed against them allows faults to be healed amongst brothers who are gained in Christ. This example of mediation and dispute resolution can be utilized in the workspace and in companies that adopt the political model as described above.
How can/should a biblical worldview be applied?
A biblical worldview can be applied across an organization. In addition to the conflict resolution described above organizations should look at Philippians 2:3-4 which states, “Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves, not looking to your own interests but each of you to the interests of the others” (New International Version Bible, 1978/2011). This demonstrates the importance of people helping their brothers in Christ. Organizational goals and corporate social responsibility initiatives are examples of some ways companies can seek to improve the communities that they operate in.
Azadegan, A., Shaheen, I., Linderman, K. and Fereidooni, A. (2021). Leadership styles in supply chain disruptions: A multimethod evaluation based on practitioner insights. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 41(10), 1615-1632. https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1108/IJOPM-10-2020-0684
Daft, R. L. (2021). Organization theory & design (13th ed.). Cengage.
Janka, M., Xaver, H., & Guenther, T. W. (2020). Beyond the “good” and “evil” of stability values in organizational culture for managerial innovation: The crucial role of management controls. Review of Managerial Science, 14(6), 1363-1404. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11846-019-00338-3
New International Version Bible. (2011). Zondervan. (Original work published 1978)
Sahoo, S. (2022). Lean practices and operational performance: the role of organizational culture. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 39(2), 428-467. https://doi-org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1108/IJQRM-03-2020-0067
Is it possible for an outsider to accurately discern about the underlying cultural values of an organization by analyzing symbols, ceremonies, dress, or other observable aspects of culture in comparison to an insider with several years of work experience?
The short answer to this question is no, an outsider cannot accurately determine the intricacies of the underlying cultural values within an organization by analyzing symbols, ceremonies, dress, or other observable aspects of culture. This is due to the simple fact that the listed are found within the visible elements of culture and the underlying elements define the culture within an organization through unconscious actions found within values, assumptions, belief systems, and thought processes (Daft, 2021). As such, it would take an insider with experience within the organization to be able to lay out the intricacies of the underlying cultural values. Daft (2021) gives tangible examples of corporations working to influence the underlying cultural values by implementing visible elements of culture such as no separate offices or the use of the informal form of address versus the formal. It may be safe to say that one can make assertions as to what they believe the underlying cultural values may be base on other research, but without the insider knowledge, these will be just assertions.
A noted organization theorist once said, "Pressure for change originates in the environment. Pressure for stability originates within the organization." Do you agree?
Based on the reading, this statement is true. The environment provides the pressure necessary to induce change. This can be caused by technological advances or customer demands. It is through change that a company maintains its relevancy within an industry. Should they remain stagnant, then it is likely that the organizations willing to adapt and change accordingly will pass them by. The environment generates three forms of change: episodic, continuous, and disruptive (Daft, 2021). Episodic change occurs when there are relatively long periods of stability with minimal change. In today’s environment, this appears to be a thing of the past. The change today’s managers typically encounter is continuous change and disruptive change. This is due to the continued development of technology and products. Continuous change becomes disruptive change, and innovation, when the process of innovating a product of service starts off small and ends up revolutionizing an industry (Daft, 2021). It is also true that stability originates within the organization. This is something that managers prefer as it makes for easy planning and increases efficiency. However, with regular changes occurring in the current global environment, managers need to ensure change has been built into the organizational structure in order to inspire innovation while simultaneously encouraging efficiency (Daft, 2021).
If managers frequently use experience and intuition to make complex, non-programmed decisions, how do they apply evidence-based management (which seems to suggest that managers should rely on facts and data)?
Intuitive decision making is the use of experience and judgment as the basis for making a decision (Daft, 2021). This form of decision making can be crucial during a time of crisis where time is of the essence. The intuitive decision making process is also where managers are able to utilize intangible factors as an influence in their decisions. On the other end of the spectrum is the evidence-based management style of decision making, or the decision making process in which evidence and available facts are utilized to make an informed and objective decision (Daft, 2021). Daft (2021) continues to state that the encouragement of dissent and diversity is a significant way disrupt the influence of the cognitive biases that tend to be the foundation of intuitive decision making. This can be done through the utilization of a devil’s advocate; essentially someone who asks why in order to challenge the immediate thought process to ensure the validity. There is also the use of two parallel teams working to solve the same problem. This is known as ritual dissent. Though the end goal of each team is the same, the hope is that each team will develop and defend their own solutions against the ridicule of the other team (Daft, 2021). Again, the intent here is to poke holes in the proposed solutions in an attempt to strengthen the final decision. It is thought that in order to make this form of decision making a regular part of business and viewed as a primary form of decision making, business schools have to be the pioneers. That is to say that they need to not only teach it, but embody it (Leroy et al., 2022).
In a rapidly changing organization, are decisions more likely to be made using the rational or political model of organization?
The rational model of organization is one in which everything is measured and weighed prior to the making of a decision. Tis includes the defining of goals, identifying alternative courses of action, and selecting the choice with the highest probability of success (Daft, 2021). This sounds like the ideal scenario for decision making and organizational model. Unfortunately, it is not viewed as sustainable in the ever-changing environment organizations find themselves in today (Daft, 2021). Although managers try to adopt the rational model of organization, the simple truth is that it is not sustainable as conflict can be found even within a single organization. This tends to be interdepartmental disputes over assets and therefore a manager has to ensure that they are working to maintain a level of contentment throughout the organization during and after decisions have been made. Once again, it is typical to find the use of both models being utilized within an organization. However, in terms of operating within a rapidly changing environment, a manager will likely not have the time to implement the rational model of organization and will have to lean on the political model.
What biblical implications should be included/addressed?
While the development of organizational culture is extremely important to the passing of crucial knowledge from one generation of workers to another as well as the development of increased levels of satisfaction and commitment (“Informal learning and work engagement among older workers: The importance of organizational culture,” 2022), Christians must ensure to guard their hearts and minds from worldly forms of thinking and operating. Romans states that Christians should “not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewal of your mind, that by testing you may discern what is the will of God, what is good and acceptable and perfect” (English Standard Version Bible, 2001/2016, Romans 12:2). As such, Christian business professionals should seek God’s wisdom when determining ways to develop the organizational culture. It is also important to understand that the visible changes may, or may not, impact the underlying values as intended.
How can/should a biblical worldview be applied?
The utilization of a devil’s advocate or ritual dissent can be viewed as a form of utilizing multiple consultants. The bible states that “where there is no guidance, a people falls, but in an abundance of counselors there is safety” (English Standard Version Bible, 2001/2016, Proverbs 11:14). While the decision is ultimately the manager’s, this individual can benefit greatly from the collaboration of others. God does not want His people to walk through the world on their own attempting to make all their life decisions in a bubble, and He would not want business professionals to operate alone either.
Daft, R. L. (2021). Organization Theory and Design (13th ed.). Cengage Learning.
English Standard Bible. (2016). BibleGateway. https://www.biblegateway.com/ (Original work published 2001)
Informal learning and work engagement among older workers: The importance of organizational culture. (2022). Development and Learning in Organizations, 36(2), 48-50. https://doi.org/10.1108/DLO-08-2021-0144
Leroy, H. L., Anisman-Razin, M., Avolio, B. J., Bresman, H., Stuart Bunderson, J., Burris, E. R., Claeys, J., Detert, J. R., goni, L., Giessner, S. R., Kniffin, K. M., Kolditz, T., Petriglieri, G., Pettit, N. C., Sitkin, S. B., Van Quaquebeke, N., & Vongswasdi, P. (2022). Walking our evidence-based talk: The case of leadership development in business schools. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 29(1), 5-32. https://doi.org/10.1177/15480518211062563
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